Public Health Board Review (Board Certification in Public Health Book 1)

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The committee affirms the importance of maintaining and improving health research effectiveness. Research discoveries are central to achieving the goal of extending the quality of healthy lives. Research into causes of disease, methods for prevention, techniques for diagnosis, and new approaches to treatment has increased life expectancy, reduced infant mortality, limited the toll of infectious diseases, and improved outcomes for patients with heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Patient-oriented clinical research that tests new ideas makes rapid medical progress possible.

Today, the rate of discovery is accelerating, and we are at the precipice of a remarkable period of investigative promise made possible by new knowledge about the genetic underpinnings of disease. Genomic research is opening new possibilities for preventing illness and for developing safer, more effective medical care that may eventually be tailored for specific individuals. Further advances in relating genetic information to predispositions to disease and responses to treatments will require the use of large amounts of existing health-related information and stored tissue specimens.

The increasing use of electronic medical records will further facilitate the generation of new knowledge through research and accelerate the pace of discovery. These efforts will require broad participation of patients in research and broad data sharing to ensure that the results are valid and applicable to different segments of the population. Collaborative partnerships among communities of patients, their physicians, and teams of researchers to gain new scientific knowledge will bring tangible benefits for people in this country and around the world.

Surveys indicate that the majority of Americans believe that health research is important, are interested in the findings of research studies, and are willing to participate in health research. But patients often lack information about how research is conducted and are rarely informed about research results that may have a direct impact on their health.

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Moreover, direct feedback could lead to improved health care for study participants if the results indicate that an altered course of care is warranted. Thus, the committee recommends that when patients consent to the use of their medical records in a particular study, health researchers should make greater efforts when the study ends to inform study participants about the results, and the relevance and importance of those results.

Broader adoption of electronic health records may be helpful in accomplishing this goal, but standards and guidelines for providing and explaining study results to research participants or various sectors of the public are needed. Numerous clinical trial registries already exist, and registration has increased in recent years, but no centralized system currently exists for disseminating information about clinical trials of drugs or other interventions, making it difficult for consumers and their health care providers to identify ongoing studies.

Interventional clinical trials are the most visible of the various types of health research, but a great deal of information-based health research entails analysis of thousands of patient records to better understand human diseases, to determine treatment effectiveness, and to identify adverse side effects of therapies.

This form of research is likely to increase in frequency as the availability of electronic health records continues to expand. As we move toward the goal of personalized medicine, research results will be even more likely to be directly relevant to patients, but more study participants will be necessary to derive meaningful results. However, many patients are likely not aware that their medical records are being used in information-based research, and surveys show that many patients desire not only notice, but also the opportunity to decide about whether to consent to such research with medical records.

Thus, HHS and the health research community should work to educate the public about how research is done. It will also be important for HHS and researchers to convey the value of health care improvements derived from medical records research, and to stress the negative impact of incomplete datasets on research findings. Representative samples are essential to ensure the validity and generalizability of health research, but datasets will not be representative of the entire population if some people withhold access to their health information.

A universal requirement for consent or authorization in information-based research may lead to incomplete datasets, and thus to biased results and inaccurate conclusions. Numerous examples of important research findings from medical records research would not have been possible if direct patient consent and authorization were always required. To ensure that beneficial health research and related activities continue to be undertaken with appropriate oversight under federal regulations, it will be important for HHS to also provide more guidance on how to distinguish the various activities.

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The Privacy Rule makes a distinction between health research and some closely related endeavors, such as public health and quality improvement activities, which also may involve collection and analysis of personally identifiable health information. However, it can be a challenge for IRBs and Privacy Boards to distinguish among activities that are or are not subject to the various provisions of the Privacy Rule and the Common Rule, and inappropriate decisions may prevent important activities from being undertaken or could potentially allow improper disclosure of personally identifiable health information.

To address these difficulties, a number of models have been proposed that outline the criteria IRBs and Privacy Boards should use to distinguish practice and research.

The committee believes that standardizing the criteria is essential to support the conduct of these important health care activities. Thus, HHS should convene the relevant stakeholders to develop standard criteria for IRBs and Privacy Boards to use when making decisions about whether protocols entail research or practice. There should be flexibility in the regulation to allow important activities to go forward with appropriate levels of oversight. These changes suggested above could be accomplished without any changes to HIPAA by making them a condition of funding from HHS and other research sponsors and by providing some additional funds to cover the cost.

Epidemiology is the study of the occurrence, distribution, and control of diseases in populations. Health services research has been defined as a multidisciplinary field of inquiry, both basic and applied, that examines the use, costs, quality, accessibility, delivery, organization, financing, and outcomes of health care services to increase knowledge and understanding of the structure, processes, and effects of health services for individuals and populations IOM, Thus, the committee chose to minimize use of the term in this report.

Effectiveness can be defined as the extent to which a specific test or intervention, when used under ordinary circumstances, does what it is intended to do. Efficacy refers to the extent to which a specific test or intervention produces a beneficial result under ideal conditions e. See Williams This section on informed consent is based largely on a Congressional Research Service report Williams, , as adapted by Pritts See 45 C.

There are additional factors if the study includes subjects who are likely to be vulnerable to coercion or undue influence. See also Grimes v. Kennedy Krieger Institute , A. Another type of oversight board defined by the Privacy Rule. See Chapter 4.

The Role of Ethics in Public Health Clinical Research

Under the Privacy Rule, consent is referred to as authorization. Personal communication, C. A total of surveys were mailed to the medical directors of quality improvement and IRB chairs at hospitals with or more beds that belong to the Council of Teaching Hospitals of the Association of American Medical Colleges, and to the editors of all U. The survey consisted of six brief scenarios that asked respondents to determine whether the described project needed IRB review and informed consent.

Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Search term. The Importance of Health Research Like privacy, health research has high value to society. The Public Values Health Research A number of studies suggest that most Americans have a positive view of medical research and believe that research is beneficial to society. Overall Experience When Participating in Research Little is known about the attitudes of individuals who have actually participated in medical research.

Willingness to Participate in Research Public opinion surveys indicate that a majority of Americans are willing to participate in clinical research studies. Overview of the Common Rule The Common Rule governs most federally funded research conducted on human beings and aims to ensure that the rights of human subjects are protected during the course of a research project. Scope of the Common Rule In general, the Common Rule applies only to research on human subjects that is supported by the federal government.

These elements include: an explanation of the purposes of the research,. Risks to subjects are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits, if any, to subjects, and the importance of the knowledge that may reasonably be expected to result;. When appropriate, the research plan makes adequate provision for monitoring the data collected to ensure the safety of subjects; and. When appropriate, adequate provisions are in place to protect the privacy of subjects and to maintain the confidentiality of data. Research involving only coded private information or specimens is not considered to involve human subjects under the Common Rule if the following conditions are met: The private information or specimens were not collected specifically for the currently proposed research project through an interaction or intervention with living individuals; and.

The investigator s cannot readily ascertain the identify of the individual s to whom the coded private information or specimens pertain because, for example:. Enforcement of the Common Rule The Common Rule requirements for informed consent do not preempt any applicable federal, state, or local laws that require additional information to be disclosed to a subject in order for informed consent to be legally effective.

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Disseminating Health Research Results Ethicists have long suggested greater community involvement in health research studies, including more communication about research results reviewed by Shalowitz and Miller, a , b. Research Registries One way to make information about research studies more broadly available to the public is through registration of trials and other studies in public databases.

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Informing the Public About the Methods and Value of Research As noted previously, clinical trials are the most visible of the various types of health research, but a great deal of information-based health research entails analysis of thousands of patient records to better understand human diseases, to determine treatment effectiveness, and to identify adverse side effects of therapies.

Personal data for public good: Using health information in medical research. Baily MA. Harming through protection? New England Journal of Medicine.

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The ethics of using QI methods to improve health care quality and safety. A Hastings Center Special Report. Effect of computerized physician order entry and a team intervention on prevention of serious medication errors. Bellin E, Dubler NN. The quality improvement-research divide and the need for external oversight. American Journal of Public Health. Big Health.