Statistical Thermodynamics: Understanding the Properties of Macroscopic Systems

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Why do the laws of thermodynamics not apply when the system is microscopic or not at equilibrium but in intermediate stage?

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How can we say that thermodynamics cannot tell anything about rate and method of energy transformations? I'd agree with Li Zhi that this is a very broad question. Let me make a few points and see if they clear up the confusion. Macroscopic systems - The gist here is that thermodynamics is based on statistics so you need a large enough system i. Thus you can't get the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution from 3 molecules of gas sealed in some container.

Statistical Thermodynamics: Understanding the Properties of Macroscopic Systems - CRC Press Book

You need millions of molecules - a macroscopic system. Think of it sort of like rolling a rock downhill. At the top of the hill the rock has some potential energy. Part way down the hill the rock stops and has a lower potential energy. So the difference in potential energy can be calculated by the height difference. Naively using the rock and hill analogy, thermodynamics says that rocks roll downhill not uphill. Also in order to move the rock uphill you have to input energy into the rock-hill system.

Macroscopic and Microscopic Approach inHindi

Dynamics - Since thermodynamics is about the energy difference between the initial state and the final state, basic thermodynamics doesn't deal with chemical kinetics. But basic thermodynamics and chemical kinetics can be combined to become a specialized field of study such as non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Your questions are really too broad to answer in this forum.

One of the strengths of Classical Thermodynamics is that it is "path independent". As your textbook stated, this means it is primarily focused on the starting and end points and not any intermediate states.

In other words, it gains predictive power by limiting itself to path independent states. There's a lot you can know about a process, given only its initial and final conditions.


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Statistical Thermodynamics: Understanding the Properties of Macroscopic Systems

Link Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. Description Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Industry Reviews " The Physics Behind The Behind In Stock. Group Theory for Physicists With Applications.